Dr. Kugathasan’s research goal is to further extend novel genetic discoveries in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in particular common and rare susceptibility variants that are the cause of very early onset IBD. In addition, he has been investigating the immunogenetic mechanisms that underlie this chronic intestinal inflammation in children and adults with IBD. He is the principal investigator of a large 40 site, multicenter research network where thousands of incident cases of early onset IBD are being enrolled. DNA, plasma and intestinal biopsy materials are being banked to identify modifier genes, environmental, and microbial factors that can be used to stratify the risk of complicated disease and surgery in IBD. As a clinician and an inflammatory bowel disease specialist, he also serves as scientific director of the inflammatory bowel disease program at Children’s Health Care of Atlanta and sees pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease, (both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis) at Emory Children’s Center and Egleston Children’s hospital.
Dr. Kugathasan received his medical degree from Sri Lanka. After pediatric residency in Sinai Hospital of Baltimore, he completed his pediatric gastroenterology fellowship at Case Western Reserve University. His research training was in mucosal immunology under the mentorship of Dr. Claudio Fiocchi. In 2002, he received the Physician of the year award from Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America. He was the recipient of the prestigious young clinical investigator award from the society of North American Pediatric Gastrenterology & Nutrition (NASPGHAN) and junior physician investigator award from American Federation for Medical Research (AFMR). He has served as a co-chair for pediatric affairs of Crohn’s and Colitis foundation of America. He moved to Emory University in 2008, and has been appointed as a Marcus Professor of Pediatric Gastroenterology / Inflammatory bowel disease. Outside of work Subra enjoys travelling, spending time with family, and tending to his backyard garden.
The Kugathasan research team (IBD Dream Team) focuses on early onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is estimated to affect approximately 1.2 million Americans. IBD is a destructive, life-long, chronic inflammatory disorder which results in gastrointestinal bleeding, weight loss and poor quality of life. IBD affects all races and onset of the disease is usually in children and young adults. Familial, twin and linkage studies suggest that CD is highly heritable. The research interest of the laboratory are:
|To determine and identify genetic associations in very young onset IBD in comparison to those found in older patients with adult onset disease. In particular, to identify high effect, highly penetrant but rare variants that cannot be identified by genome wide association studies.|
|To identify susceptibility and modifying factors and perform Genotype – serotype – bacteriotype - gene expression studies in carefully and prospectively identified incident cases of early onset IBD.|
|Genome wide association studies to determine common SNPs / loci and copy number variants in African Americans with IBD. Replication studies in African Americans show that the major genetic variants that were found in Caucasians with IBD are not associated with African Americans.|
|Use of the latest generation sequencing technologies to comprehensively identify IBD - predisposing causal variants in order to fully characterize the physical scale of various genetic associations in IBD. Performing targeted sequencing in susceptibility loci found in African Americans and Caucasians in parallel is another area of interest.|
|Development of patient derived intestinal enteroids and colonoids which are miniaturized intestines produced from the patients own biopsy specimen. To do this we obtain biopsy specimens from patients undergoing a routine colonoscopy at Children's Healthcare of Atlanta Egleston and Emory Univeristy Hospital. The goal of this project is twofold: to establish a large diverse enteroid / colonoid biobank, which will be a valuble resource for researchers in the near future; and to screen individual patients for drug response, which could dramatically change the way drugs are prescribed to patients in the future bringing us closer to our goal of personalized medicine.|
The Kugathasan Research Team has many projects that are currently being worked on. Funding from multiple sources including government and private foundations ensure we are able to keep doing group breaking research. The current research projects are below:
Pediatric onset CD is the fastest growing incident age group as is considered to be a more aggressive phenotype than adult onset disease. At presentation, the most of the children present with an inflammatory or so called non-complicated disease behavior. Over time a sub-group of CD patients progress to more a complicated disease behavior, which involve hospitalization and sometimes surgery. The factors or pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of complications are poorly understood. Therefore, discovery of predictive factors contributing to the progression of a CD patient from an uncomplicated to complicated phenotype necessitates engaging a patient population naïve to all therapies and devoid of any confounding factors. In 2008 the RISK (Risk Stratification and Identification of Immunogenetic and Microbial Markers of Rapid Disease Progression in Children with Crohn’s Disease) study was commenced at 28 investigative centers in North America with the goal of prospectively characterizing and predicting the natural history of newly diagnosed CD in children presenting with uncomplicated disease.
To this end, over 1000 CD patients have been prospectively enrolled at this study. Each patient was followed for over 5 years. All patients were required to undergo a baseline colonoscopy before treatment with findings recorded in a standardized fashion. At enrollment and during ongoing prospective follow-up evaluation, medication exposure, clinical, radiological, endoscopic and laboratory data were obtained for each enrolled patient and submitted to a centralized data management center. All patients were managed according to the dictates of their physicians, not by standardized protocols. The institutional review board of each site reviewed and approved the protocol and each participant provided written informed consent. Blood for genomic DNA, serology, stool and biopsy samples were collected at the time of diagnosis in all subjects. Patients were followed up at minimum of every 6 months. During the follow up visits for up to 3 years, blood samples and (on occasion) ileal biopsy were collected. Currently our team is working towards the primary aim of the project, which is to develop a composite risk score using phenotypes, genetics, serology, microbiome and gene expression markers.
Funding provided by Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America (CCFA)
Predicting Response to Standardized Pediatric Colitis Therapy (PROTECT Study):
The PROTECT study is a multi-center prospective cohort study of standardized medical therapy (mesalamine or corticosteroids) in newly diagnosed ulcerative colitis in children and adolescents. It is funded by the National Institutes of Health through the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
Funding provided by National Institutes of Health (NIH/NIDDK) U01DK095745
Gene Discoveries in Subjects with Crohn’s Disease of African Descent (Genesis AA Study):
Nearly all genetic studies of IBD are focused on Caucasians; however, there is emerging data suggesting that the disease burden is similar in African Americans (AA). Variation data from HapMap, 1000 Genomics and other disease studies suggests that the allelic architecture of AA populations could be significantly different from Caucasians. A large sample size is needed for an adequately powered genetic study. Additionally, the AA population has much more genetic variation. We are currently in alliance with the NIDDK IBD Genetic Consortium’s (IBDGC) mission to dramatically increase the recruitment of AA patients (pediatric and adult) IBD subjects for gene discovery purposes.
Funding provided by National Institutes of Health (NIH/NIDDK) R01DK087694
Longitudinal Characterization of Gut Microbiota and its Correlation with Host Genetics, Metabolomics and Protein Function in Children and Adults With and Without Inflammatory Bowel Disease (STINKI):
The human microbiome is comprised of more than 100 trillion cells, or roughly 10X the number of human cells. The intestinal microbiome plays an essential role in health and disease through its role in immune system maturation and host defense. Numerous cross sectional studies have demonstrated the individuals diagnosed with IBD have intestinal microbiomes that are significantly altered (both quantitatively and qualitatively) from their healthy counterparts: decreased proportion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and increased proportion of proteobacteria.
Very little is known about how the intestinal microbiota, proteomics and metabololmics of an individual change over the course of an illness in response to intestinal inflammation and disease activity. Longitudinal analyses are critical in our ability to characterize the relationship between environment, microbial profile and clinical outcomes.
This study aims to characterize the fecal microbial community and its correlation with host genetic, metabolomics and protein function by obtaining repeated samples in participants both with and without IBD. The potential impact of this analysis is far-reaching, as it will not only provide more awareness into the pathogenesis of IBD, but also provide future avenues to explore new therapeutic opportunities.
Causes and Consequences of neutrophil dysfunction in early onset Crohn’s disease (Neutrophil):
Anti-microbial sero-reactivity (AMS) and chronic intestinal inflammation similar to Crohn's Disease (CD) during the first decade of life in children with inherited disorders of phagocyte function suggests that loss-of-function in neutrophil antimicrobial pathways is likely to be a fundamental mechanism of pediatric CD pathogenesis. GWAS in CD have accounted for only a portion of the heritability and have rarely identified few loci of large effect. Rare variants, which GWAS are underpowered to detect, have been hypothesized to explain a substantial fraction of complex disorders like CD, so gene discovery efforts have now shifted to characterization of deleterious / loss of function mutations. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) is required for priming of neutrophil antimicrobial function, and bioinformatic analysis of genomic studies has suggested a central role in CD pathogenesis. We discovered that older pediatric (early onset, EO, age 10-17) and adult patients exhibit an acquired basis for neutrophil dysfunction, GM-CSF auto-antibodies (GM-CSF Ab), which increase in titer with increasing age. GM-CSF Ab carriage is associated with reduced neutrophil STAT5 activation, phagocytic capacity, and bacterial killing, and high rates of AMS and stricturing behavior. To test the significance of these exciting developments, we have established a prospective clinical database and biobank for 1130 pediatric CD patients enrolled at diagnosis (the RISK study). We found that neutrophil phagocytosis and bacterial killing is reduced in a subset of patients. VEO patients have exhibited rare coding region mutations in genes predicted to affect GM-CSF priming of bacterial killing (CSF2RB & ITGAM/CD11b) and neutrophil oxidative burst (CYBA/p22phox), while EO patients have exhibited increasing titers of GM-CSF Ab. We hypothesize that genetic variants and GM-CSF Ab cause neutrophil dysfunction and thereby contribute to disease pathogenesis in an age-dependent manner in pediatric CD. Aim 1: Identify all coding genetic mutations in 127 genes likely to disrupt GM-CSF signaling and/or neutrophil function in 500 very early onset pediatric CD patients. Aim 2: Test the functional consequences of genetic mutations upon neutrophil GM-CSF signaling and bacterial killing. Peripheral blood samples will be collected from RISK patients carrying genetic mutations predicted to affect GM-CSF priming and neutrophil function including neutrophil candidate protein expression/localization, GM- CSF signaling, CD64 activation, adhesion, chemotaxis, oxidative burst, phagocytosis, and bacterial killing. We will use state-of-the-art genomic and immune approaches to define for the first time the causes and consequences of neutrophil dysfunction in the largest pediatric CD inception cohort in North America. Collectively, this studies will have direct implications for novel therapeutic approaches designed to modulate this critical host defense pathway in patients who experience the worst outcomes with current approaches.
Funding provided by National Institutes of Health (NIH/NIDDK) R01DK098231
DNA Methylation / Epigenetics
Epigenetic modifications induce changes in gene expression through structural alterations of DNA that are maintained through each round of cell division; they respond to changes in the environment, are potentially reversible and can be targeted for disease therapies. DNA methylation at cytosine-guanine dinucleotides (CpG sites) is the epigenetic modification that is most commonly studied in humans. It regulates gene expression by influencing the recruitment and binding of regulatory proteins to DNA. Typically, an increase in methylation at gene promoter regions correlates with a decrease in expression of that gene Intragenic DNA methylation is also important to regulate alternative promoters and enhancers that define a variety of alternative transcripts.
- Aim 1: Characterize DNA methylation differences over the course of treatment in pediatric Crohn’s cases over 3 years of treatment.
- Aim 2: Characterize epigenetic markers in intestinal tissue to assess the utility of both whole blood and intestinal methylation patterns as biomarkers to predict side effects following treatment.
Funding provided by Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America (CCFA)
The Kugathasan Research Team has many clinical trails that patients are actively being recruited for. These studies are used to better understand how IBD effects patients, and provides a mechanism for patients to actively participate in research. The current clinical trials are below:
Develop - A Multi-center, Prospective, Long-term, Observational Registry of Pediatric Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. The purpose of this study is to collect long-term safety information on the disease and medications that you received or are receiving for your inflammatory bowel disease.
Adapt - A Phase 4, Multicenter, Open-label Study of Serum Infliximab Concentrations and
Efficacy and Safety of Dose Escalation in Pediatric Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. The purpose of this study is to determine if pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease who do not respond to the approved dose of infliximab will respond to a higher than approved dose of infliximab. The study will explore whether patients will respond to a higher than approved dose of infliximab, as well as any associated side effects. (A dose is a measured amount of a drug taken at one time.)
Abbvie Humira Trial (M11-290) - M11-290 A Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of the Human Anti-TNF Monoclonal Antibody Adalimumab in Pediatric Subjects with Moderate to Severe Ulcerative Colitis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of adalimumab and to assess the pharmacokinetics (PK) (how drug is distributed in the body over time) of adalimumab following subcutaneous (under the skin injection) administration in pediatric subjects with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis.
Cape Registry - A long term (10 years) post marketing observational study to assess safety and effectiveness of Humira (Adalimumab) in pediatrics with moderately to severely active Crohn’s Disease.
MSC Infusion (No more recruitment) – In this Phase I trial the investigators intend to show safety and tolerability of autologous MSC, expanded using a non-xenogeneic, human component platelet lysate expansion media. Fresh, non-cryopreserved, autologous MSCs will delivered intravenously as a single bolus dose in a dose escalation phase I study. The investigators intend to test whether the product is clinically safe in adults (18-65 years old) with CD and to determine maximal deliverable dose. Secondary endpoint will monitor effectiveness using CDAI as an endpoint.
Anti-TNF Therapy for Refractory Colitis in Hospitalized Children (ARCH) - A multicenter pilot and feasibility prospective cohort study to test the hypothesis that children hospitalized with severe steroid-refractory colitis exhibit rapid IFX clearance that influences clinical outcomes, and is predicted by baseline albumin and inflammatory markers. The ultimate goal is to develop strategies for optimizing therapy in children with severe colitis, thus minimizing the need for chronic steroid exposure and colectomy.
If interested please email firstname.lastname@example.org for more information
Shenelle joined the Kugathasan lab September of 2017. She manages all team calendars and oversees all functions of the IBD Dream Team. She is a St. Thomas, Virgin Islands native and graduate of Albany State University, where she received a BA in Marketing. Whether spending time with 2-year old son Eli or hanging out with friends, in her free time, you can find Shenelle exploring the city. The Atlanta resident for over 20 years, loves to try new restaurants and check out local food, music and neighborhood festivals.
Clinical Research Coordinators
Mahadev Prasad, MD
Associate Director of Research Projects
Mahadev joined the Kugathasan lab in November of 2009. He is the Associate Director of Research Projects for the IBD Dream Team. Mahadev recieved his MBA in healthcare administration from the University of Arkansas Little Rock. Outside of work he enjoys hiking, cooking, and travelling with family and friends.
Chantrice Rogers, MPH
Clinical Research Coordinator
Chantrice joined the Kugathasan lab in August of 2015. She is a graduate of Savannah State University and has a Masters Degree in Public Health from Mercer University. Chantrice is one of our Clincial Research Coordinators and she manages various research trials within the group. When she is not in the office, you may find her volunteering or planning her next global excursion.
Bernadette Martineau MS, RD
Clinical Nutritionist / Clinical Research Coordinator
Bernadette joined the Kugathasan lab in December of 2012. She is a graduate of Georgia State University with a MS in nutrition. She is the clinical nutritionist in the IBD clinic and also helps to consent and collect patient samples for research. When she is not in clinic, you might find her driving her two dogs around in her dog taxi or hiking with her husband and two dogs. She also loves cooking and trying out new recipes.
Hannah Oloyede, MPH
Clinical Research Coordinator
Hannah joined the Kugathasan lab in 2017. She is a graduate of the University of Georgia with a Bachelor’s of science in biology and a graduate of Georgia State University with a Master’s in Public Health. She consents patients ,collects lab samples, completes data entry for various studies as study coordinator. When she’s not in the clinic, you might find her out and about with her family and friends, reading or binge watching reality television shows.
Laboratory Research Team
David Okou MS, PhD
David's research focus on dissecting the genetics architecture of complex diseases affecting individual of African descent. He use cutting edge genomic and bioinformatics tools to identify, annotate and interpret genetic variations. David also uses a multi-omic integrative analysis approach to understand disease mechanism and ultimately identify therapeutic targets. Outside of work David enjoys restoring classic cars.
Jarod joined the Kugathasan lab in March of 2012. He is a graduate of Morehouse College in Atlanta, Ga. Jarod oversees the Kugathasan laboratory and works closely with other IBD investigators at Emory University. In his spare time Jarod enjoys hanging out with friends and family as well as attending music festivals and concerts around the U.S and abroad.
Anne joined the Kugathasan lab in April of 2016. She is a graduate of Appalachian State University. Anne oversees the day to day operations of the Kugathasan lab. In her spare time you can find her enjoying all the outdoors has to offer, along with her three dogs.
Khuong Le, MS
Khuong Joined the Kugathasan lab in 2015. She received her B.S. from UGA and her MS from Morehouse School of Medicine. Khuong oversees and actively manages the day to day operations of the bio-repository. She spends her free time working out and eating out. She also likes to travel to places with her family and friends.
Suresh Venkateswaran, PhD
Suresh joined the Kugathasan lab in September 2015. He recieved his PhD in Bioinformatics from Bharathidasan University inTamilnadu, India. Currently, he is involved in data mining projects from Genotyping, Exome sequencing, Whole genome sequencing, Transcriptomic (RNASeq), Microbiome and DNAmethylation. His hobbies are cooking traditional south Indian food, travelling, playing board games and driving.
Kajari Mondal, PhD
RISK Project Manager
Kajari Joined Kugathasan lab in January 2015. She is a trained human geneticist and did her doctoral studies in Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore and post-doctoral research in Emory University. Her current role is scientific project manager for the RISK stratification study. She drives proposals between 28 different institutions and coordinates manuscript preparation. Kajari is skilled at understanding, synthesizing, interpreting, and articulating complex scientific concepts for both scientific and lay personnel. In her spare time, she enjoys gardening, cooking, and creating artworks.
Raguraj "Ragu" Chandradevan, MD
Ragu joined the Kugathasan lab in 2017. He received his M.B.B.S from University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Ragu is actively working in a couple of research projects including defining IBD-U and auditing a clinical databse. He spends his free time doing Hot Yoga.
Zijun Liu, MS
Zijun joined the Kugathasan Lab in November 2017. She is a graduate of University of Southern California with a MS in Applied Mathematics. She analyzes lab and patients data with Python, SQL and Tableau. When she's not in the lab, you might find her at the archery range. She also loves building Lego and playing Nintendo Switch games.
Ranjit is currently a student at Emory University. He plans on graduating in May 2018 with a BS Human Biology & Anthropology. After graduating Ranjit plans on persuing a graduate degree in epigenetics. His research interest include Exosomal Mediated, RNA-Controlled Oncogenic Metastasis. Ranjit's favorite quote is "All rivers lead to an ocean".
Current Clinical Fellow
Cortney Ballengee, MD
Cortney is a 3rd year clinical fellow who is doing her research portion of her fellowship with the Kugathasan lab. Cortney recieved her medical degree from West Virginia University School of Medicine and did residency at University of Virginia School of Medicine. When Cortney is not in the hospital seeing patients she is in the laboratory identifiying biomarkers. Outside of the hospital and lab Cortney enjoys travelling and watching Netflix.
Livia Lindoso, MD
Livia joined the Kugathasan lab in November of 2016. She received her MD from UniEVANGÉLICA in Goiás, Brazil. She is currently a research scholar working on ATAC seq and enteroid models in IBD. Outside of the lab Livia enjoys spending time with her dog Angel.
Hari Somineni, MS
Hari is a PhD candidate in the Kugathasan lab. His research interests are primarily focused towards understanding the genetic and epigenetic contributions to IBD. When Hari is not in the lab or in class he enjoys binge watching shows on Netflix and playing cricket.
Past Clinical Fellows
|Rebecca Scheer, MD|
|Clifton Huang, MD|
|Jeremy Middleton, MD|
|Robert Simek, MD|
|Tatyana Hofmekler, MD|
|Sana Syed, MD|
|Jordan Weitzner, MD|
Past Medical Student Trainees
Madeline Bertha, MD
Hillary Shapiro, MD
Shiva Shirazi, MD
Oloruntosin Adeyanju, MD
Please see a few of the recent publications that have originated directly from our research group
Names in BOLD denotes members of the Kugathasan Lab
Bertha, M., A. Vasantharoopan, A. Kumar, B. B. Bruce, J. Prince, T. Hofmekler, D. Okou, P. Chopra, G. Wang, C. Sauer, C. J. Landers, S. Z. Hussain, R. K. Cross, R. N. Baldassano, M. D. Kappelman, J. Katz, J. S. Alexander, B. S. Kirschner, D. E. Moulton, B. O. Osuntokun, A. Patel, S. Saeed, J. A. Klapproth, T. A. Dhere, M. C. Dubinsky, D. McGovern and S. Kugathasan (2017). "IBD Serology and Disease Outcomes in African Americans With Crohn's Disease." Inflamm Bowel Dis 24(1): 209-216.
Marigorta, U. M., L. A. Denson, J. S. Hyams, K. Mondal, J. Prince, T. D. Walters, A. Griffiths, J. D. Noe, W. V. Crandall, J. R. Rosh, D. R. Mack, R. Kellermayer, M. B. Heyman, S. S. Baker, M. C. Stephens, R. N. Baldassano, J. F. Markowitz, M. O. Kim, M. C. Dubinsky, J. Cho, B. J. Aronow, S. Kugathasan and G. Gibson (2017). "Transcriptional risk scores link GWAS to eQTLs and predict complications in Crohn's disease." Nat Genet 49(10): 1517-1521.
Syed, S., E. S. Michalski, V. Tangpricha, S. Chesdachai, A. Kumar, J. Prince, T. R. Ziegler, P. S. Suchdev and S. Kugathasan (2017). "Vitamin D Status Is Associated with Hepcidin and Hemoglobin Concentrations in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease." Inflamm Bowel Dis 23(9): 1650-1658.
Kugathasan, S., L. A. Denson, T. D. Walters, M. O. Kim, U. M. Marigorta, M. Schirmer, K. Mondal, C. Liu, A. Griffiths, J. D. Noe, W. V. Crandall, S. Snapper, S. Rabizadeh, J. R. Rosh, J. M. Shapiro, S. Guthery, D. R. Mack, R. Kellermayer, M. D. Kappelman, S. Steiner, D. E. Moulton, D. Keljo, S. Cohen, M. Oliva-Hemker, M. B. Heyman, A. R. Otley, S. S. Baker, J. S. Evans, B. S. Kirschner, A. S. Patel, D. Ziring, B. C. Trapnell, F. A. Sylvester, M. C. Stephens, R. N. Baldassano, J. F. Markowitz, J. Cho, R. J. Xavier, C. Huttenhower, B. J. Aronow, G. Gibson, J. S. Hyams and M. C. Dubinsky (2017). "Prediction of complicated disease course for children newly diagnosed with Crohn's disease: a multicentre inception cohort study." Lancet.
Brant, S. R., D. T. Okou, C. L. Simpson, D. J. Cutler, T. Haritunians, J. P. Bradfield, P. Chopra, J. Prince, F. Begum, A. Kumar, C. Huang, S. Venkateswaran, L. W. Datta, Z. Wei, K. Thomas, L. J. Herrinton, J. A. Klapproth, A. J. Quiros, J. Seminerio, Z. Liu, J. S. Alexander, R. N. Baldassano, S. Dudley-Brown, R. K. Cross, T. Dassopoulos, L. A. Denson, T. A. Dhere, G. W. Dryden, J. S. Hanson, J. K. Hou, S. Z. Hussain, J. S. Hyams, K. L. Isaacs, H. Kader, M. D. Kappelman, J. Katz, R. Kellermayer, B. S. Kirschner, J. F. Kuemmerle, J. H. Kwon, M. Lazarev, E. Li, D. Mack, P. Mannon, D. E. Moulton, R. D. Newberry, B. O. Osuntokun, A. S. Patel, S. A. Saeed, S. R. Targan, J. F. Valentine, M. H. Wang, M. Zonca, J. D. Rioux, R. H. Duerr, M. S. Silverberg, J. H. Cho, H. Hakonarson, M. E. Zwick, D. P. McGovern and S. Kugathasan (2017). "Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies African-Specific Susceptibility Loci in African Americans With Inflammatory Bowel Disease." Gastroenterology 152(1): 206-217 e202.
Chandrakasan, S., S. Venkateswaran and S. Kugathasan (2017). "Nonclassic Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Young Infants: Immune Dysregulation, Polyendocrinopathy, Enteropathy, X-Linked Syndrome, and Other Disorders." Pediatr Clin North Am 64(1): 139-160.
Shaw, K. A., M. Bertha, T. Hofmekler, P. Chopra, T. Vatanen, A. Srivatsa, J. Prince, A. Kumar, C. Sauer, M. E. Zwick, G. A. Satten, A. D. Kostic, J. G. Mulle, R. J. Xavier, and S. Kugathasan. 2016. 'Dysbiosis, inflammation, and response to treatment: a longitudinal study of pediatric subjects with newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease', Genome Med, 8: 75.
Dhere, T., I. Copland, M. Garcia, K. Y. Chiang, R. Chinnadurai, M. Prasad, J. Galipeau, and S. Kugathasan. 2016. 'The safety of autologous and metabolically fit bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells in medically refractory Crohn's disease - a phase 1 trial with three doses', Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 44: 471-81.
Huang, C., T. Haritunians, D. T. Okou, D. J. Cutler, M. E. Zwick, K. D. Taylor, L. W. Datta, J. C. Maranville, Z. Liu, S. Ellis, P. Chopra, J. S. Alexander, R. N. Baldassano, R. K. Cross, T. Dassopoulos, T. A. Dhere, R. H. Duerr, J. S. Hanson, J. K. Hou, S. Z. Hussain, K. L. Isaacs, K. E. Kachelries, H. Kader, M. D. Kappelman, J. Katz, R. Kellermayer, B. S. Kirschner, J. F. Kuemmerle, A. Kumar, J. H. Kwon, M. Lazarev, P. Mannon, D. E. Moulton, B. O. Osuntokun, A. Patel, J. D. Rioux, J. I. Rotter, S. Saeed, E. J. Scherl, M. S. Silverberg, A. Silverman, S. R. Targan, J. F. Valentine, M. H. Wang, C. L. Simpson, S. L. Bridges, R. P. Kimberly, S. S. Rich, J. H. Cho, A. Di Rienzo, L. W. Kao, D. P. McGovern, S. R. Brant and S. Kugathasan (2015). "Characterization of genetic loci that affect susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases in African Americans." Gastroenterology 149(6): 1575-1586.
Cutler, D. J., M. E. Zwick, D. T. Okou, S. Prahalad, T. Walters, S. L. Guthery, M. Dubinsky, R. Baldassano, W. V. Crandall, J. Rosh, J. Markowitz, M. Stephens, R. Kellermayer, M. Pfefferkorn, M. B. Heyman, N. LeLeiko, D. Mack, D. Moulton, M. D. Kappelman, A. Kumar, J. Prince, P. Bose, K. Mondal, D. Ramachandran, J. F. Bohnsack, A. M. Griffiths, Y. Haberman, J. Essers, S. D. Thompson, B. Aronow, D. J. Keljo, J. S. Hyams, L. A. Denson, P.-K. R. Group and S. Kugathasan (2015). "Dissecting Allele Architecture of Early Onset IBD Using High-Density Genotyping." PLoS One 10(6): e0128074.
Gevers, D., S. Kugathasan, L. A. Denson, Y. Vazquez-Baeza, W. Van Treuren, B. Ren, E. Schwager, D. Knights, S. J. Song, M. Yassour, X. C. Morgan, A. D. Kostic, C. Luo, A. Gonzalez, D. McDonald, Y. Haberman, T. Walters, S. Baker, J. Rosh, M. Stephens, M. Heyman, J. Markowitz, R. Baldassano, A. Griffiths, F. Sylvester, D. Mack, S. Kim, W. Crandall, J. Hyams, C. Huttenhower, R. Knight and R. J. Xavier (2014). "The treatment-naive microbiome in new-onset Crohn's disease." Cell Host Microbe 15(3): 382-392.
Okou, D. T., K. Mondal, W. A. Faubion, L. J. Kobrynski, L. A. Denson, J. G. Mulle, D. Ramachandran, Y. Xiong, P. Svingen, V. Patel, P. Bose, J. P. Waters, S. Prahalad, D. J. Cutler, M. E. Zwick and S. Kugathasan (2014). "Exome sequencing identifies a novel FOXP3 mutation in a 2-generation family with inflammatory bowel disease." J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 58(5): 561-568.
Middleton, J. P., A. P. Bhagavathula, B. Gaye, J. A. Alvarez, C. S. Huang, C. G. Sauer, G. Tenjarla, B. T. Schoen, A. Kumar, M. Prasad, D. T. Okou, W. C. Ifeadike, T. A. Dhere, K. N. Conneely, T. R. Ziegler, V. Tangpricha and S. Kugathasan (2013). "Vitamin D status and bone mineral density in African American children with Crohn disease." J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 57(5): 587-593.
Waters, J., V. Dhere, A. Benjamin, A. Sekar, A. Kumar, S. Prahalad, D. T. Okou and S. Kugathasan (2013). "A practical and novel method to extract genomic DNA from blood collection kits for plasma protein preservation." J Vis Exp(75): e4241.